EUA | European University Association

University mergers in Europe

  • Click on the map for an overview of mergers in a given country.
  • Click on the grey panel to search mergers on different criteria.
  • Use the timeline at the bottom to filter mergers for a specific period.

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About EUA

The European University Association (EUA) represents and supports over 800 higher education institutions and associations in 47 countries. 17 million students are enrolled at EUA member universities. Members of the Association are European universities involved in teaching and research, national associations of rectors and other organisations active in higher education and research.

EUA plays an essential role in shaping tomorrow’s European higher education and research landscape thanks to its unique knowledge of the sector and the diversity of its members. The Association’s mandate in the Bologna Process, contribution to EU education and research policy-making and relations with intergovernmental organisations, European institutions and international associations, ensure its capacity to represent and debate issues which are crucial for universities.

EUA is building strong universities for Europe through targeted activities aimed at supporting their development. These focus on:

  • Developing common policies in areas where universities have a vital interest in working together at European or international level.
  • Communicating these policies to a wide range of stakeholders and partners to ensure that the voice of universities is heard and also that individual members are aware of and can contribute to policy debates impacting on their development.
  • Offering a coherent programme of events and other services to support all member institutions. Such events and activities seek to develop universities knowledge and expertise though projects that involve and benefit institutions and inform policy making at all levels.
  • Strengthening the leadership, governance and management capacities of universities through mutual learning and exchange.

The underlying aim of EUA’s work is to develop and advocate common policies for European universities that will contribute to creating a coherent higher education and research system for Europe built on strong, autonomous and well-funded universities able to act in an increasingly complex and global environment.

Thanks to its interaction with its members and a range of other European and international organisations, EUA ensures that the independent voice of European universities is heard wherever decisions are being taken that will impact on their activities. For further information, visit www.eua.be.

About the tool

Background and objective

The objective of the EUA University Merger tool is to map institutional mergers in the university sector across Europe.

It is a pilot tool based on the data collected by the European University Association throughout the DEFINE project. In the framework of this project, EUA has explored strategies for efficient funding of universities and has notably analysed the phenomenon of merger and concentration processes in the sector. This analysis is detailed in the report University mergers in Europe, published in 2015.

The DEFINE project has received support from the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union (2012). This website reflects the views only of the author, the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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Definition

A merger is considered to have taken place when at least one institution has ceased to exist as a legal entity, having been incorporated into either a new or existent institution. However, the cases recorded in this tool include hybrid cases, such as the Flemish university associations and French university communities. While in such cases the founding institutions may retain their legal entity, the newly created institution is deemed significant enough in terms of funding mechanisms, international cooperation and branding to be included here. This type of “umbrella” organisations are also set up in a wider context of system restructuring, and are therefore considered relevant for the purposes of the present analysis.

This tool maps university mergers that are formally in effect since 2000 onwards. The geographical coverage corresponds to EUA membership, covering 47 European countries.

Data collection

Data has been assembled via the information EUA collects from its member universities, as well as from the National Rectors’ Conferences in the frame of the DEFINE project.

Data has been validated with the National Rectors’ Conferences and by consulting the websites of the institutions concerned.

The following information has been collected for each merger case:

  • Name of the newly created institution
  • City: legal seat of the institution
  • Location: campuses and operations concentrated in one city / metropolitan area or organised in several cities
  • Date of merger: date by which the new institution takes formally over the founding institutions
  • Number of students: available as headcount and/or full-time equivalents (the reference year is indicated)
  • Website address
  • Name and type of founding institutions: the tool distinguishes among five possible types:
    • University UNI
    • University of applied sciences UAS
    • Business school BSC
    • Specialised institution SPE
    • Research organisation ROR

This necessarily crude categorisation only partially caters for Europe’s diversity in the field. The wealth of varied cases across Europe that are recorded in the tool means that a detailed analysis of the status and nature of activities of each founding institution is not possible, also often as the information related to the former institution is not available anymore.

Please note that the same institution may have been involved in subsequent merger processes, particularly in so-called vertical mergers whereby a large institution absorbs successively smaller ones. Such processes are recorded separately in the tool but are signalled in such a way that it is clear to the user that they are related processes.

EUA welcomes feedback and suggestions regarding the merger cases recorded in the tool through this form. It can also be used to provide information about cases which could be added, as long as they concern countries where EUA has full members (see here EUA’s membership directory). Feedback can also be sent to the email address: funding@eua.be.

Technical note: please empty the cache of your browser in case you encounter difficulties with the map.

Country sheet

Belgium

Flanders and the French-speaking Community have been facing the challenge of excessive fragmentation and have sought to address the need for more international visibility and competitiveness. Several mergers in the 90’s and the 2000’s have paved the way for a larger-scale concentration process. In Flanders, the higher education landscape has been re-organised around 5 “university associations” in 2002-2003. In 2013, the “academisation” process came to an end when all the former 2 cycle programmes from the university colleges were formally integrated in the university they are associated with. Roughly about 10% of overall student population has been moved from university colleges to the universities.

In the French-speaking Community, multi-actor platforms gather universities and other higher education institutions, after the number of universities has been reduced from 9 to 6 in 2012.

 

Total of mergers and associations

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Antwerp

Antwerp University Association

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2003

  • Number of students 20109

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Antwerp uni
  • Karel de Grote University College uas
  • Artesis Plantijn University College Antwerp uas
  • Antwerp Maritime Academy spe

University of Antwerp

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2003

  • Number of students 18800

    Reference year: 2008

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Universitaire Faculteiten Sint-Ignatius Antwerpen uni
  • Rijksuniversitair Centrum Antwerpen uni
  • UIA (Universitaire Instelling Antwerpen) uni

City sheet

Ghent

Ghent University Association

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2003

  • Number of students 41000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Ghent University uni
  • University College Ghent uas
  • Artevelde University College Ghent uas
  • University College West Flanders uas

City sheet

Leuven

KU Leuven Association

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2002

  • Number of students 55533

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  •  Thomas More uas
  • Katholieke Hogeschool VIVES uas
  • University College Odisee uas
  • LUCA School of Arts uas
  • Katholieke Hogeschool Limburg uas
  • Katholieke Universiteit Leuven uni

City sheet

Liège

University of Liège (1)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 20000

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Liège uni
  • HEC-Liège bsc

University of Liège (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 20000

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

  • Website http://ulg.be

Institutions involved

  • University of Liège uni
  • Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech spe

University of Liège (3)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2011

  • Number of students 20000

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Liège uni
  • Institut supérieur d'architecture Saint-Luc de Liège spe
  • Institut supérieur d'architecture Lambert Lombard spe

City sheet

Louvain-la-Neuve

UCL Catholic University of Louvain

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2011

  • Number of students 28856

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • UCL Catholic University of Louvain uni
  • Facultés universitaires catholiques de Mons uni

Country sheet

Croatia

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Pula

Juraj Dobrila University of Pula

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2006

  • Number of students 5000

    Reference year: 2009

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • "Dr. Mijo Mirković" Faculty of Economics and Tourism spe
  • Faculty of Philosophy in Pula spe
  • Higher Teacher Education and Training School in Pula

Country sheet

Denmark

In an important system-level process whereby several universities merged and integrated research institutes, the number of Danish universities has been halved between 2005 and 2012. There have also been massive merger processes among university colleges.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Aalborg

Aalborg University

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2007

  • Number of students 20115

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 14661

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Aalborg University uni
  • Danish Building Research Institute ror

City sheet

Aarhus

Aarhus University (1)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2006

  • Number of students 29550

    Reference year: 2007

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 17467

    Reference year: 2007

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Aarhus University uni
  • Handels- og Ingeniørhøjskolen i Herning uas

Aarhus University (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2007

  • Number of students 28982

    Reference year: 2008

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 17865

    Reference year: 2008

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Aarhus University uni
  • Aarhus School of Business bsc
  • Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences spe
  • National Environmental Research Institute ror
  • Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitet uni

Aarhus University (3)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2012

  • Number of students 38169

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 23895

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Aarhus University uni
  • Ingeniørhøjskolen i Århus uas

City sheet

Copenhagen

University of Copenhagen

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2007

  • Number of students 40866

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 24577

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • University of Copenhagen uni
  • The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University uni
  • Danish University of Pharmaceutical Sciences uni

City sheet

Lyngby

Technical University Denmark

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2007

  • Number of students 9990

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 6456

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Technical University Denmark uni
  • Risø National Laboratory ror
  • Danish National Space Center spe
  • Danmarks Fiskeriundersøgelser ror
  • Danmarks Transportforskning ror
  • Danmarks Fødevareforskning ror

City sheet

Odense

University of Southern Denmark (1)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 14252

    Reference year: 2007

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 8925

    Reference year: 2007

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • University of Southern Denmark uni
  • Odense University College of Engineering uas
  • Danish Centre of Rural Research and Development, Esbjerg ror
  • Research Unit of Maritime Medicine, Esbjerg ror

University of Southern Denmark (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2007

  • Number of students 30013

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Southern Denmark uni
  • National Institute of Public Health spe
  • Business School Centre bsc

Country sheet

Estonia

The number of universities has dropped dramatically from 41 in 2000 to 29 in 2012. 60% of this decrease is because of mergers, and the rest due to closures. This trend of contraction can be seen as a “correction” mechanism following a rapid growth in the number of institutions in the 1990s. Most of the mergers were ‘vertical’, with large public universities absorbing smaller professional higher education institutions and private institutions. The process does not result from an overall political strategy at system level.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Tallinn

Tallinn Health Care College

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2006

  • Number of students 1900

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn Health Care College spe
  • Kohtla-Järve Medical School spe

Tallinn University (1)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 10016

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Academic Library of Estonia spe
  • Estonian Institute of Humanities ror
  • Institute of History  ror
  • Tallinn Pedagogical University spe
  • Baltic Film and Media School spe

Tallinn University (2)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 10016

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University uni
  • Estonian Institute for Future Studies spe

Tallinn University (3)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2010

  • Number of students 10016

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University uni
  • Academy Nord uni

Tallinn University (4)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 10016

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University uni
  • Tallinn Pedagogical Seminar spe

Tallinn University of Technology (1)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2000

  • Number of students 13050

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University of Technology uni
  • Virumaa Kõrgkool uas

Tallinn University of Technology (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 13050

    Reference year: 2000

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University of Technology uni
  • Kohtla-Järve Polytechnic uas

Tallinn University of Technology (3)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2008

  • Number of students 13050

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn University of Technology uni
  • International University Audentes uni

TTK University of Applied Sciences

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2006

  • Number of students 2825

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Tallinn College of Engineering uni
  • Tallinn Light Garment Technology School  spe

City sheet

Tartu

University of Tartu (1)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2001

  • Number of students 16025

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Tartu uni
  • Estonian Marine Institute ror
  • Teacher Training Seminar uas

University of Tartu (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2002

  • Number of students 16025

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Tartu uni
  • Institute of Law uni

University of Tartu (3)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 16025

    Reference year: 2005

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Tartu uni
  • Viljandi Culture Academy spe

Country sheet

Finland

In 2006, increasing pressure to consolidate the Finnish University system led to the set-up of committees to explore the possibilities for university mergers, resulting in bringing the number of universities from 20 to 14. The Finnish University system was deeply reformed in 2010 through the new University Act. The motivations for the reform were to increase the efficiency, autonomy and international competitiveness of the university sector.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Espoo

Aalto University

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2010

  • Number of students 19683

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 11337

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Helsinki University of Technology uni
  • Helsinki School of Business bsc
  • University of Art and Design Helsinki spe

City sheet

Helsinki

University of the Arts Helsinki

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 2041

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Finnish Academy of Fine Arts spe
  • Sibelius Academy spe
  • Theatre Academy Helsinki spe

Country sheet

France

Recent reforms of 2007 and 2013 seek to consolidate universities and restructure the overall higher education landscape. This is done by granting universities more autonomy and competences and encouraging groupings of institutions. The latter is fostered via the creation of the “Communities of universities and HEIs”. These communities have a specific governance structure (president, council, academic council, “member council”). While organisational features are fixed in the law, the competences of these communities are left for the university groupings to decide on. The Communities are not mergers, as the different institutions entering the Community retain their legal entity. They nevertheless represent significant concentration processes relevant for the purpose of comparative analysis.

French universities have engaged in full-scale mergers as well. Therefore Communities may include recently merged institutions, together with other partner institutions.

The list below includes both “Communities” and mergers. Communities can be identified by the acronym “COMUE” at the beginning of the name.

Total of mergers and communities

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Bordeaux

Bordeaux hosts a merged university (University of Bordeaux) and a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions (here: Communauté d’Universités et Etablissements d’Aquitaine), of which the University of Bordeaux is a member.

COMUE – Communauté d’universités et établissements d’Aquitaine

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 80510

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université de Bordeaux uni
  • Université Bordeaux Montaigne uni
  • Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour uni
  • Bordeaux INP uni
  • Sciences Po Bordeaux spe
  • Bordeaux Sciences Agro spe

University of Bordeaux

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 50000

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Bordeaux 1 uni
  • Université Bordeaux Segalen uni
  • Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV uni
  • Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux uas
  • Sciences Po Bordeaux spe

City sheet

Caen

Caen is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Normandie Université

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 58603

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université de Caen Basse-Normandie uni
  • Université de Rouen uni
  • Université du Havre uni
  • Institut national des sciences appliquées de Rouen uni
  • École nationale supérieure d'ingénieurs de Caen spe
  • École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Normandie spe

City sheet

Cergy

Cergy is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Université Paris Seine

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 21000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université de Cergy-Pontoise uni
  • École supérieure des sciences économiques et commerciales spe
  • École nationale supérieure d’arts de Paris-Cergy spe
  • École nationale supérieure d’architecture de Versailles spe
  • École nationale supérieure de paysage de Versailles spe
  • École de biologie industrielle spe
  • École catholique d’arts et métiers – École supérieure en électricité, productique et management industriel spe
  • École supérieure d’agro-développement international spe
  • Institut Polytechnique Grand Paris uni
  • Ecole pratique de service social spe
  • Institut libre d'éducation physique supérieur spe
  • Ecole supérieure d'agro-développement international spe
  • Ecole ITESCIA spe

City sheet

Grenoble

Grenoble is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Université Grenoble Alpes

Institutions involved

  • Joseph Fourier University uni
  • Pierre-Mendès-France University uni
  • Stendhal University uni
  • Grenoble Institute of Technology uni
  • CNRS Délégation Alpes ror
  • Inria (Centre Grenoble - Rhône-Alpes) ror

City sheet

Lyon

Lyon is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Université de Lyon

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 129000

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 uni
  • Université Louis Lumière Lyon 2 uni
  • Université Jean Moulin Lyon 3 uni
  • Université Jean Monnet Saint-Etienne uni
  • Ecole normale supérieure de Lyon spe
  • Institut national des sciences appliquées de Lyon (INSA) uas
  • Ecole Centrale Lyon spe
  • Sciences Po Lyon spe
  • VetAgro Sup spe
  • Ecole nationale des travaux publics de l'Etat spe
  • Ecole nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Etienne spe
  • Centre national de recherche scientifique ror

City sheet

Marne-la-Vallée

Marne-la-Vallée is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Université Paris-Est

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 21000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne uni
  • Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée uni
  • École des Ponts ParisTech spe
  • ESIEE Paris uas
  • École nationale vétérinaire d'Alfort spe
  • Institut français des sciences et technologies des transports, de l'aménagement et des réseaux ror
  • Centre national de recherche scientifique ror

City sheet

Marseille

Aix Marseille University

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2012

  • Number of students 72000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Provence (Aix-Marseille I) uni
  • University of the Mediterranean (Aix-Marseille II) uni
  • Paul Cézanne University (Aix-Marseille III) uni

City sheet

Montpellier

Montpellier hosts a merged university (Montpellier University) and the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions  (here: Languedoc-Roussillon Universités) which includes Montpellier University among its members.

COMUE – Languedoc Roussillon Universités

Institutions involved

  • Université de Montpellier uni
  • Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier uni
  • Université de Perpignan Via-Domitia uni
  • Université de Nîmes uni
  • Montpellier SupAgro spe
  • Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie de Montpellier spe
  • Institut de recherche pour le développement ror
  • Centre national de recherche scientifique ror

Montpellier University

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 41000

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Montpellier 1 uni
  • Université Montpellier 2 uni

City sheet

Nancy

Université de Lorraine

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2012

  • Number of students 51868

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Institut national polytechnique de Lorraine uas
  • Université Henri Poincaré uni
  • Université Nancy 2 uni
  • Université Paul Verlaine-Metz uni

City sheet

Paris

Paris is the legal seat of several “Communities”, which are groupings of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Sorbonne Universités

Institutions involved

  • UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie uni
  • Paris-Sorbonne University uni
  • UTC - Compiègne University of Technology uni
  • INSEAD bsc
  • National Museum of Natural History
  • CIEP - Centre International d'Etudes Pédagogiques spe
  • PSPBB - Pôle Supérieur d'Enseignement Artistique Paris Boulogne-Billancourt spe
  • CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ror
  • INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ror
  • INRIA - Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique ror
  • IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement ror

COMUE – Université Paris Lumières

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 55000

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Ouest Nanterre La Défense - Paris X uni
  • Université Paris-VIII « Vincennes–Saint-Denis » uni
  • CNRS ror

COMUE – Université Sorbonne Paris Cité

Institutions involved

  • Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris III uni
  • Université Paris Descartes - Paris V uni
  • Université Paris Diderot - Paris VII uni
  • Université Paris-Nord - Paris XIII uni
  • École des hautes études en santé publique spe
  • Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales spe
  • Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris spe
  • Institut d'études politiques de Paris spe
  • Centre national de recherche scientifique ror
  • Institut national d'études démographiques ror
  • Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique ror
  • Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale ror
  • Institut de recherche pour le développement ror

City sheet

Saclay

Saclay is the legal seat of a “Community”, which is a grouping of universities and other higher education / research institutions.

COMUE – Université Paris-Saclay

Institutions involved

  • Université Paris-Sud uni
  • Université de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines uni
  • AgroParisTech spe
  • École polytechnique spe
  • École normale supérieure de Cachan spe
  • CentraleSupélec spe
  • École des hautes études commerciales de Paris bsc
  • École nationale supérieure de techniques avancées spe
  • ENSAE ParisTech spe
  • Institut Mines-Télécom spe
  • Institut d'optique Graduate School spe
  • Centre national de la recherche scientifique ror
  • Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives ror
  • Institut des hautes études scientifiques ror
  • Institut national de la recherche agronomique ror
  • Institut national de recherche en informatique et en automatique ror
  • Office national d'études et de recherches aérospatiales ror
  • Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale ror

City sheet

Strasbourg

University of Strasbourg

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 44991

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Strasbourg 1 (Louis Pasteur) uni
  • Université de Strasbourg II (Marc Bloch) uni
  • Université Strasbourg III (Robert Schuman) uni

City sheet

Toulouse

COMUE – Université Fédérale Toulouse Midi-Pyrénées

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 100000

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Université Toulouse 1 Capitole uni
  • Université Toulouse - Jean Jaurès uni
  • Université Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier uni
  • Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse uas
  • Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Toulouse spe
  • Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace spe
  • Centre Universitaire Jean-François Champollion uas
  • École Nationale de l’Aviation Civile spe
  • École Nationale de Formation Agronomique spe
  • École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Toulouse spe
  • École Nationale Supérieure des Mines d’Albi-Carmaux spe
  • Institut Catholique d'Arts et Métiers de Toulouse spe
  • Institut d'Etudes Politiques de Toulouse spe
  • Toulouse Business School bsc
  • Centre de Ressources, d'Expertise et de Performance Sportives spe
  • Institut supérieur des arts de Toulouse spe
  • CNRS - Centre National de Recherche Scientifique ror
  • INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique ror
  • INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ror
  • IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement ror
  • ONERA - Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aérospatiales ror

Country sheet

Germany

There is no clear trend in Germany towards system concentration and mergers. There are different narratives to the cases reported here, with varying degrees of involvement of regional public authorities.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Cottbus

Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 9550

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus uni
  • Lausitz University of Applied Sciences uas

City sheet

Karslruhe

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 24528

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Karlsruhe uni
  • Karlsruhe Research Centre ror

City sheet

Lüneburg

Leuphana University of Lüneburg

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 7350

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Lüneburg uni
  • University of Applied Sciences Nordostniedersachsen uas

Country sheet

Hungary

In Hungary, a large wave of mergers occured in the 1990’s. Since then, the focus of public authorities is on vertical mergers, with large institutions absorbing smaller university colleges, which number is considered excessive.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Budapest

National University of Public service

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2012

  • Number of students 10800

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Zrínyi Miklós National Defence University spe
  • Police College (Rendörtiszti Föiskola) spe
  • Faculty of Public Administration of Corvinus University of Budapest spe

Country sheet

Iceland

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Reykjavík

University of Iceland

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2008

  • Number of students 13848

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Iceland uni
  • Iceland University of Education spe

Country sheet

Ireland

Merging higher education institutions is a rather recent phenomenon in Ireland. Mergers are foreseen or ongoing within the sector of the Institutes of Technology, as part of a proposed move towards “Technological Universities”, and in the University sector with the Colleges of Education (teacher training colleges) being incorporated into existing universities.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Galway

National University of Ireland Galway

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 17000

    Reference year: 2016

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • National University of Ireland Galway uni
  • Shannon College of Hotel Management spe

City sheet

Limerick

Limerick Institute of Technology

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2011

  • Number of students 6000

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Limerick Institute of Technology uni
  • Tipperary Institute spe

Country sheet

Italy

Due to the already large size of most Italian universities, the discussion between the public authorities and the sector focuses on rationalising the academic offer and reducing duplication at regional level. This may lead to further specialisation of the institutions.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Riga

Latvia Culture Academy

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2012

  • Number of students 647

    Reference year: 2012

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Latvia Culture Academy spe
  • Latvian Culture College spe

Riga Stradins University

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2010

  • Number of students 6764

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Riga Stradins University uni
  • Red Cross College of Medicine spe

University of Latvia

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2004

  • Number of students 15100

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Latvia uni
  • Riga College of Medicine spe

Country sheet

Latvia

Mergers in latvia have been driven principally by public authorities. They are typically vertical mergers, with larger institutions absorbing smaller specialised colleges. These colleges nevertheless retain their degree awarding powers and status as ‘non-autonomous legal units’.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

Country sheet

Lithuania

Lithuanian public authorities have sought to foster mergers in the sector by providing financial incentives. The merger leading to the foundation of the University of Health Sciences has received such support.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

Country sheet

Norway

Mergers in Norway are a recent phenomenon. They have different drivers, including the better organisation of the teaching provision. There is also an effort from the public authorities to enhance the coherence of the national network of research institutes. More mergers of university colleges and research institutes with universities are envisaged.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015
  • 2016

City sheet

Ås

NMBU – Norwegian University of Life Sciences

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 5000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Norwegian University of life sciences uni
  • Norwegian School of Veterinary Science spe

City sheet

Bodø

Nord University

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2016

  • Number of students 12230

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Nordland uni
  • Nord-Trøndelag University College uas
  • Nesna University College uas

City sheet

Kongsberg

University College of Buskerud and Vestfold

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 8075

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 7296

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Buskerud University College uas
  • Vestfold University College uas

City sheet

Oslo

University College of Applied Sciences of Oslo and Akershus (1)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2011

  • Number of students 16527

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Oslo University College uas
  • Akershus University College uas

University College of Applied Sciences of Oslo and Akershus (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 16527

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University College of Applied Sciences of Oslo and Akershus uas
  • Work Research Institute ror
  • NOVA Research Institute ror

City sheet

Tromsø

UIT The Arctic University of Norway

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 10114

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Tromsø uni
  • University College of Finnmark uas

University of Tromsø

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 10114

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Tromsø uni
  •  University College of Tromsø uas

Country sheet

Poland

Mergers in the public and private sectors have taken place and more are expected mainly because of demographic change and resulting decreases in student numbers. There is no specific system-wide strategy fostering mergers, although the government has provided seed funding for such processes.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Olsztyn

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2000

  • Number of students 27000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Agriculture and Technology uni
  • Pedagogical Institute spe
  • Warmia Institute of Theology spe

City sheet

Szczecin

West Pomeranian University of Technology Szczecin

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2009

  • Number of students 13000

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Agricultural Academy in Szczecin spe
  • Szczecin University of Technology uni

City sheet

Toruń

Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2004

  • Number of students 30000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń uni
  • Medical Academy spe

City sheet

Zielona Góra

University of Zielona Góra

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2001

  • Number of students 13500

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Zielona Góra Technical University uni
  • Zielona Góra Pedagogical University spe

Country sheet

Portugal

List of mergers

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

Country sheet

Russia

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Moscow

Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2015

  • Number of students 62722

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 28347

    Reference year: 2015

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Plekhanov Russian University of Economics uni
  • Moscow State University of Economics, Statistics and Informatics spe

Country sheet

Slovakia

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Košice

Technical University of Košice

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 10643

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Technical Universtiy of Košice uni
  • Air Force Academy of Milan Rastislav Štefánik in Košice spe

Country sheet

Sweden

There is a tendency in Sweden towards fewer, larger institutions (absorbing smaller entities in the region). There is a broad agreement at political level around the need to rationalise the organisation of the sector and increase the visibility of the institutions. However territorial considerations also play an important role, and have led to the creation of new institutions.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Stockholm

Stockholm Academy of Dramatic Arts

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2011

  • Number of students 273

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University College of Film, Radio, Television and Theatre spe
  • Stockholm Academy of Dramatic Arts spe

Stockholm University

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2008

  • Number of students 70971

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 29559

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Stockholm University uni
  •  Stockholm Institute of Education uni

Stockholm University of the Arts

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 437

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • Stockholm Academy of Dramatic Arts spe
  • Swedish University of Dance and Circus spe
  • University College of Opera spe

City sheet

Växjö

Linnaeus University

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2010

  • Number of students 31000

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 14336

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • University of Kalmar uni
  • Växjö University uni

Country sheet

Ukraine

List of mergers

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

Country sheet

United Kingdom

The merger activity registered in England does not proceed from a system-level strategy, but institutions involved in merging processes can benefit from special support. In Wales, on the other hand, there has been close public authority involvement in directing the reconfiguration of the higher education system. The Welsh government policy has resulted in reducing the number of universities, but the high level of university autonomy has also enabled institutions to resist pressure to merge in some cases.

Total of mergers

  • 2000
  • 2001
  • 2002
  • 2003
  • 2004
  • 2005
  • 2006
  • 2007
  • 2008
  • 2009
  • 2010
  • 2011
  • 2012
  • 2013
  • 2014
  • 2015

City sheet

Farnham

University for the Creative Arts

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2005

  • Number of students 6331

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: Headcount

    Number of students 5994

    Reference year: 2013

    Type of counting: FTE

Institutions involved

  • Kent Institute of Art and Design spe
  • Surrey Institute of Art and Design University College spe

City sheet

Lampeter

University of Wales Trinity Saint David (1)

Institutions involved

  • University of Wales Lampeter uni
  • Trinity University College Carmarthen uas

University of Wales Trinity Saint David (2)

  • Location Several cities

    Merger year 2013

  • Number of students 11320

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University of Wales Trinity Saint David uni
  • Swansea Metropolitan University uni

City sheet

London

London Metropolitan University

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2002

  • Number of students 16255

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • London Guildhall University uni
  • University of North London uni

University College London

  • Location One city

    Merger year 2014

  • Number of students 30551

    Reference year: 2014

    Type of counting: Headcount

Institutions involved

  • University College London uni
  • Institute of Education spe

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